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Tense denotes time of the action expressed by the verb. There are three main divisions of tense. They are Past, Present and Future, but time and tense are not the same thing. The actions expressed by the verb that take place at different stages of time are called the tenses. Thus, the actions that take place at different periods of time are expressed by three tense. They are:

(a) The Present Tense.

(b) The Past Tense.

(c) The Future Tense.

In each tense may be sub- divided into four groups.

They are: .

(1) The Present Tense.

(a) Simple Present or Present Indefinite Tense. . 

(b) Present Continuous Tense (Progressive Tense)

(c) Present Perfect Tense.

(d) Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

(2) The Past Tense.

(a) Simple Past or Past Indefinite Tense.

(b) Past Continuous Tense.

(c) Past Perfect Tense.

(d) Past Perfect Continous Tense.

(3) The Future Tense.

(a) Simple Future or Future Indefinite Tense

(b) Future Continuous Tense.

(c) Future Perfect Tense.

(d) Future Perfect Continuo Now Various tenses are discussc below-


(A) Simple Present or Present Indefinite Tense:

Form: Subjec + root of the verb + Subject

The pianets move round the Sun.

Subject.   Verb.      Object.     
He    eatsrice

(Note: When we find the subject in the sentence third person singular number, we use 's' or 'es' after the main verb.) Main uses of the Simple Present Tense: (1) This tense is use i to express actions that happen everya Day (Week, Month, Year), or always, or now and ther. or form time to time.


1. He goes to school every day.

2. She comes here now and then.

3. I go to school by cycle.

(2) This tense is use to express facts that are always true at the moment of eaking. (i.e. Universal truth)


1. The earth revolves round the Sun.

2. The Sun rises in the east.

3. Coal is black.

4. Death come to every one sooner or later.

3. This Tense is used to express habitual action.


1. He smokes.

 2. Dogs bark.

3. we get up at 6 o'clock in the morning.

4 They always play in the afternoon.

(4) This tense is used to express past incidents in a vivid manner. This is also called historical present.


1. Akbar is the gretest emperor of India.

2. Gandhiji is the father of the Indian Nationality.

(5) This tense is sometimes used to express fixed programme of the Future time.


1. The Prime Minister comes to Assam tomorrow. 

2. The train arrives Guwahati at 6 P.M. tomorrow.

(6) This tense is often used with adverbs or adverb phrases such as: occasionally, often, usually, generally, once a week, once a month, once a year, twice a week, twice a month, twice a year, regularly, everyday(week, month, year, morning, evening,etc.) each morning, each evening, some times etc.


1. This paper appears twice a week. 

2. He often comes to school late.

3. He studies regularly.

4. She sometimes comes here.

(B) Present Continuous Tense:

Form: Subject + be verb (am/is/are) + root + ing + object.

She is writing a letter now. I am drawing a picture.

He is doing the work.

They are playing football in the field now.

Main uses of present continous tense:

1. Present continous is used to express an action that is going on at the moment of speaking, but not yet completed.


1. I am reading now.

 2. She is writing a story now.

2. By using 'going to' form we use present continuous tense to express future time sometimes.


1. I am going to Jorhat tommorow 

2. She is going to the theatre to night.

3. It is going to rain very soon.

(C) Present Perfect Tense: Form: Subject+have/has+past participle from of the verb+object.

I have done the sum.

He has done the work.

I have had my meal.

 Main uses of present perfect tense:

(1) The present perfect tense is used for recent actions when the time is not mentioned.

Example: 1. I have read the instructions, but I don't under stand them.

2. Have you had your breakfast? No, I haven't had it yet.

(2) This tense is often used with adverbs such as ever. never, today, not yet, lately, already, just, recently, just now etc. 


1. There have been some changes lately/ recently.

2. He has had bad luck recently.

3. Recently the price of sugar has gone up.

4. He has had/ taken his meal just now.

5. He has just done the work.

6. She has already finished her homework.

[Note: Recently and just now are also use with simple past tense, means

'a short time ago".

 1. He left recently.

2. The bus left the place recently.

3. He went there just now ]

(C) Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

 Form: Subject + have/has + been + root + ing etc.

I have been working for two hours. 

He has been serving in this school since 2005.

You have not been living here since 1995.

[Note: Point of time: since. Period of time for ]

Use: This tense is used for an action which began in the past and is still continuing.


1. I have been here for three hours.

2. She has been suffering from fever since Monday last.

3. He has been working in the factory since 2010.

4. It has been snowing for a long time.


1.Simple Present tense.

(i) Ice (float) on water.

Ans: Ice floats on water. 

(ii) Water (freeze) in extreme cold

Ans: water freezes extreme cold.

(iii) The shop (open) at 9 o'clock every morning

Ans: The's hop opens at 9 o'clock every morning

(iv) An honest man always (speak) the truth.

Ans. An honest man always speaks the truth. 

(v) He usually (go) to bed at 10.30 PM.

Ans: He usually goes bed at 10.30 P.M.

(vi) The book (contain) a lot of informations Ans. The book contains a lot of informations.

(vii) The bus generally (arrive) here at 6 o'clock. Ans: The bus generally arrives here at 6 o'clock.

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