Hormones of ovary

 Hormones of ovary & Their Function:


Main point

🔹Estrogen Function:-

    In adult women the ovary secretes a number of hormones among which are sex steroids like estrogen , progesterone , androgen and their precursor. In addition the ovary also synthesis relexin , inhibing, prostaglandin and other substances. The granular cells of ovarian fossicle secrete estrogens, whereas the lethal cell secrete most of the progesterone & little amount of estrogen. Physiological Roles of Ovarian 

Hormones :- Ovarian steroid stimulate the growth and development of female reproductive organs & secondary sex organs . Ovulation , pregnancy , parturition are also control by different ovarian sex steroids & peptides.

*Estrogen Function:-

1.Development of secondary sex characters :- During puberty estrogen stimulates the growth of reproductive system like cuticles fallopian tube. A vagina , it also enhances the growth of mammary
duct system. Secondary sex character like female of pubic hair, distribution & accumulation of fat around its and breast are also control by estrogen . It action brain to develop faminion personality and female pattern of sexual behavior. 

2.Regulation of Reproductive cycle :- During the follicular phase of menstural cycle estrogen causes proliferation and hypertrophy of utarian endometrium and utarian gland. During this step rhythomic contraction of utarian muscle , movement of fallopian tube cilia, vascularization of uterine etc. Occurs under estrogen influence . It also up accumulates progesterone receptor in utarian endometrial gland and thus increase the responsiveness of uterus to progesterone . During mid cycle sudden fallen estrogen level stimulates and upcharge of LH secretion that causes ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus Luteum & progesterone secretion.

3.Anabolic effect :-
 Androgen has a significant anabolic effect on protein synthesis by the liver . It also increases the plasma proteins that bind irons & copper & the level of AHDL(High Density Lipoprotein) and LDL. The later results in increase circulatory level of triglycerides. In contrast this effect estrogen lower de circulating level of progesterone or LDL. Estrogen also exert some effect on electrolytic balance. 

4.Effect on Bone & other organs :- Estrogen helps in retention of Ca2+ & phosphate in the bones. It decreases bone resorption rate but they don’t stimulate bone formation. At meno paws decrease estrogen secretion reserves in osteoporosis of reabsorption of sodium from the renal tubule. Estrogen increases blood coagulation of rate. It also modulates sympathetic nervous system control of smooth muscle function.


*Androgen Function: 

1.Effect on Reproductive cycle :- In the luteal phase of mensural cycle progesterone enhances the growth of uterine endometrine glands. It also posses secretion of uterine glands , suppression of further ovulation , inhibition of uterine mortality of growth of vaginal epithelia. It reaches the body temperature by reducing cutenom lost. Following ovulation serum level of progesterone become high which pich act the metal of the nuteal phase. At the end of the cycle blood level of progesterone decreases.

2. Maintenance of Pregnancy :- Progesterone's is essential for the development as well implination of mammalian bloustoces in the in the endometrium. It fertilization occurs the corpus luteum endarges & secret progesterone under the influence of alles to help in the uterine growth necessity for implination. Soon hCG secreted from placenta starts to maintain the corpus luteum function upto & weak of pregnency. After that placenta itself start to secret progesteron to continue pregnancy changes of uterus. The placental progesterone released into maternal cerculation maintains uterine structure & function , mammary growth & development , inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretia. 

3)Effects on oxytocin Receptor :- The number of O.R in the uterus depends on estrogen & progesterone. Near full term of pregnancy , Number of O.R in uterine smooth muscle increases sharply with the full in progesteron. This leads to increases uterine sensitivity to oxytocin. The reflex release of oxytocin , tigens the uterine contraction for parturition.

 4) Effect on lactatia :- The progesterone level falls near the hand of pregnancy which kept lactation in temporary suspension during pregnancy. Such inhibitory effects are removed , so the oxytocin receptor in mammary gland reach milk ejection easily in response to suckling by the new born.5.Other Functions :- In addition to pregnancy changes , progesterone is reported to complete with aldosterone act the renal tubule tubule causing are decrease in Na+ reabsorption. This leads to an increase secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex in pregnancy . The hormone also alters the function of aspiratory centers. The ventilatory response to Co2 is increased, leading to a civier reduction in arterial & alveolar CO2 during pregnancy . Progesterone has some hypotonic effects on brain.

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